SUPPLEMENTS

The basic approach I use to adding anything to a diet, is not using it before I know what it does. There are indications and contraindications, side effects, safe limits involved.

These supplements came from a text that is A-Z, The Athlete’s Guide To Sports Supplements, Mueller/Hingst. Plus a few others involved. It is not every last one of them. Studies indicate some work and then other works say they don’t work.

I am only saying these are the debated topics, on the ones that present as maybe more useful.

I do not receive any compensation for this. Only to improve the health of society, and assist athletes with their training.

These are assumed as part of a balanced diet.

-Russ

X will indicate an injury mechanism.

SUPPLEMENTS AND INTENDED EFFECT:

ACAI

Anthocyanin, antioxidant.

ACETYL L

Improve the phospholipid bilayer cell membrane. Decrease Alzheimer’s, peripheral neuropathy. Increase neurotransmitter ACh.

ALPHA LIPOIC ACID

Change in fat metabolism, protects cells.

ARGININE

Decrease neuromuscular fatigue. Precursor to Nitric Oxide, found in soy in chicken.

ASPARTATES

Increase ammonia to urea conversion. Increase glycogen synthesis. Found in asparagus.

ASTRALAGUS

Antioxidant.

AVOCADO SOY UNSAPONIFIABLES

Stims cartilage to grow. Decreases cytokines on chondrocytes & synovial. Inhibits TGF-B.

BEETROOT

Antioxidant, anthocyanin. X: 3 mg nitrates per 100g. GI cancer in infants.

BETA CAROTENE

Improve cell membrane, precursor to Vit A. The body will not convert excess to A, so it is safeguarded as a fat soluble Vit, these build up to toxicity ( Vit’s- D,E,A,K, Co Q-10).

BETA GLUCAN

Mushroom for worked it is reported, not oat. Improved immune, wound healing.

BETAINE

Increased; TMG (decreases homocysteine (from caffeine) damage), circulation, fat metabolism. X: increased cholesterol.

BORON

Improved cognitive, (inflammation decrease), immune.

X: Increased antigen induced arthritis.

BOSWELLIA SERRATA

Anti inflammatory.

BCAA-BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACID

Aminos available as energy, oxidized in muscle. Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine. Prevents muscle breakdown.

BROMELAIN

Found in pineapple, and banana.

Effects of Bromelain on Cardiovascular and Circulation. Bromelain prevents or minimizes the severity of angina pectoris and transient ischemic attack (TIA). It is useful in the prevention and treatment of thrombophlebitis. It may also break down cholesterol plaques and exerts a potent fibrinolytic activity.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3529416/

My reading in CEU discussed it reducing adhesions (scars).

This in addition:

Deeper, lower extremity burns were debrided with a new bromelain-based debriding agent, resulting in scar-free healing. … Bromelain has demonstrated an anti-angiogenic effect in various cancer cell lines and it has been shown to regulate a variety of pro-angiogenic (process by which new blood vessels form) factors.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6033487/

Decreases; edema (swelling), Cox 2, bruising, bradykinin, osteoarthritis efx, sinusitis.

With Papin and fungal, regulates White Blood Cell.

CALCIUM

Increase lipid oxidation. Decrease fat absorption.

CAPSICUM

Decrease nerve pain on capsaicin receptors, 49% at 3 weeks, muscle, joint pain.

CASEIN

Mike protein, rated as slow.

CAT’S CLAW

Decrease NF-KB, anti inflammatory.

CHIA

Omega 3, antioxidant.

CHITOSAN

Decrease cholesterol, X: on allergy to shellfish.

CHOLINE

Improved Homocysteine metabolism, decreased at 26 miles.

CHROMIUM PICOLINATE

Increased insulin function.

CHRYSIN

In honey, anti estrogen, flavone- vasodilatory.

CINNAMON

Anti; inflammatory, microbial. Polyphehol (decreases brown spots in skin), decreased Cox 2. 3-6 grams common use.

CITRULLINE MALATE

Decreased ammonia in body, found in apples.

COCOA- FLAVONALS

Copper, potassium, calcium, polyphenol, increased cardiovascular protect. Decreased BP, cholesterol.

COCONUT

Anti bacterial, viral, fungal. X: watch the saturated fat bomb here.

CO-Q10

Fat soluble vitamin. Decreased lipid peroxidation, CK( creatine kinase- marker for muscle damage, which willl shut down kidneys in excess).

COLOSTRUM

Increase immune/IgA, decreased gut permeability, 3-4 x protein of normal milk.

CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (OMEGA 6)

Decreased fat uptake. Increased Beta-oxidation. Leads to insulin resistance?

COPPER

Needed for ATP production. Athletes take creatine for ATP increase.

CORDYCEPS SINENSIS

May increase T helper cells.

CREATINE

Increased muscle energy. Synthesis in liver, 95% in muscle.

CURCUMIN

Polyphenol, anti; inflammatory, oxidant. Decrease- COX 2, NF-kB.

DEVIL’S CLAW

Chondro(cartilage) protective. Best anti inflammatory? 1-3 grams common.

ECHINACEA

Increased; immunoglobins, antibody, macrophage. X: on allergy to ragweed.

ELDERBERRY

Flavonoids, anthocyanin, increased; immune, flu recovery. XXX Toxic build up like Cyanide.

FENUGREEK

Flavonoid, polyphenol. Decrease glucose in diabetes?

FIBER

Increased insulin sensitivity.

Soluble decreases cholesterol, insoluble is roughage.

5 HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN (5 HTP)

Increase Serotonin (decreased depression) .

FLAXSEED

Increased; fat metabolism, prostaglandin.

FOLIC ACID B9

Decrease Homocysteine, increased; vascular function, RBC.

GABA

Neurotransmitter, increased alpha brain waves, decreased cortisol.

GAMMA LINOLENIC- OMEGA 6

Anti inflammatory.

GARLIC

Anti; inflammatory, bacterial, viral. Reverses cholesterol plaques/heart disease.

GINGER

With 50 antioxidants, alternative to NSAID.

GINKO BILOBA

$249 million per year/USA.

Neural protective.

X: One reading reports this to cause hemorrhage in the brain with Vit E and Omega 3 use. Triple stack of blood thinners. Decrease radicals, increase insulin sensitivity.

Decrease BP, cortisol.

GINSENG

3 kinds; American (increased adrenal), Korean (panax) w/ flavonoid, Siberian( increased mental acuity).

GLUTAMINE

Most abundant amino, increased protein synth, spares CP (creatine).

GLUTATHIONE- GSH

Antioxidant, synth in liver from L-Cysteine.

OPC’S -OLIGOMERIC PROANTHOCYANIDIN COMPLEXES

  • Strong antioxidant- 20-50X potency. Crosses BBB blood brain barrier.
  • Decrease; swelling, prostaglandin.

GRAPE SEED EXTRACT

SUPER ANTIOXIDANT, numbers vary but lists as 20X stronger than either Vit C or VIT E. The discrepancy is it is 50X stronger than one of those vitamins alone, while the other vitamin is outdone 20X by GSE .

GYMNEMA SYLVESTRA

Improved insulin efx, decreased triglyceride and body fat.

HOODIA GORDONII

Hypothalamus efx.

Increased ATP (energy) production.

HMB

An mTor pathway regulation-protein synth.

Decreased LDL.

Metabolite of Leucine.

HYDROXYCITIRC ACID

Increased serotonin. Decreased ATP-ase( enzyme).

INOSINE

Increased O2?

X: uric acid, kidney stone.

IRON

Increased ATP.

ISOMALTULOSE

Decreased glycemic, increased fat oxidation.

LEUCINE

BCAA, mTor pathway.

LUTEIN

_____________________

KNOCKING OUT HOMOCYSTEINE

LDL OXIDATION

_____________________

To lower LDL oxidation.  Supplement Lutein is what you want?  On the effects of homocysteine damaging blood vessels.

4 mechanisms damage vessels- proliferation of vascular smooth cells, endothelial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, oxidation of LDL.  A decrease in Nitric Oxide as endothelial dysfunction.

What to do?

Lutein may decrease LDL oxidation, found in kale, spinach, yellow carrots.

Green Tea lowering LDL oxidation.  With Ginseng, it also lowers homocysteine, it looks like to zero?

Nitric Oxide may dilate vessels but is also a radical.

A combination of vitamins C and E (ascorbic acid, tocopherol) or solitary supplementation with vitamin A (retinoic acid) prevented lipidperoxidation.

X: What effect with blood thinners?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15838641

MAGNESIUM

Peak O2 uptake, cardio protective.

MARAL ROOT

Flavonoid, anthocyanin, improved immune.

MEDICAL MUSHROOM

Anti; bacterial, inflamm, viral, polyphenol. Some types improve T cells, fat use, ATP.

MCT’S- MEDIUM CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE

Fat not needing normal digestion, more available for energy.

MELATONIN

From tryptophan amino, induces sleep.

X: Don’t use on blood thinners.

METHYLSUFONYLMETHANE (MSM)

Increase cortisol efx.

Use in chronic joint pain.

CITRUS BIOFLAVONOID

Anti platelet, decreases clotting.

Changes drug metabolism at liver.

OMEGA 3 FATTY ACID

Protectins and Resolvins.

Improves cell membranes, wanting a 1:1 ratio with Omega 3: Omega 6.

Decrease EIB.

Flax needs 3-5 higher dose with conversion less efficient than fish oil. X: too much blood thinner is a hazard.

ORNITHINE

Proline in collagen.

PHOSPHATE SALTS

Buffer, increase in O2. Saw use in WW II.

PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE

Cell membrane.

Decrease Nitric Oxide.

PIPERINE

Black pepper, decrease triglycerides, cholesterol.

Changes Gene PPARy, decrease adipogenesis.

Increase curcumin, resveratrol absorb.

POTASSIUM

Increase protein synth?

PROBIOTIC

25% of bacteria in body.

PREBIOTIC

Intestine is 70% of the immune fight.

PYCNOGENOL

(OPC’S-) Potent anti oxidant. Decrease enzyme in bronchitis.

QUERCITIN

Red grape, apple skin. Flavonoid, increase mitochondria( cell power house?)

RESVERATROL

Strong antioxidant, decrease; COX 2, DNA damage.

Changes gene for fat burning?

RHODIOLA ROSEA

Increase ATP.

RIBOFLAVIN B2

Deficient stunts growth.

RIBOSE

+P runs right to ATP or DNA.

RUTAECARPINE

Anti inflamm, increase N.O. Vanilloids, decrease fat uptake.

SAMe

From methionine, may increase proteoglycans which is part of cartilage. Collagen the other component of cart… Alternate to NSAID,

SEA BUCKTHORN

C,E, Beta Carotene, lycopene, flavonoids, GSH antioxidant.

Decrease; CK, R.O.S (radical). Increase antioxidant enzyme.

SELENIUM

Antioxidant, mineral.

SIERRA SIL

Minerals found in a dig site, and marketed.

CA, K, AL, P, MN, FE, SI, MG, BA, CU, CO, ZN

Decrease interleukin 1-B, cartilage degrade.

SOY PROTEIN

Isoflavones, slower than whey protein.

SUPER OXIDE DIMUTASE

Antioxidant, decrease homocysteine damage.

Broccoli.

Long duration antioxidant in high dose.

SYNEPHRINE/BITTER ORANGE

Adrenal receptor efx.

TART CHERRY

Alternate to NSAID, increased prostaglandin.

THIAMINE B1

Deficiency efx: nervous system, heart, brain.

Tannins in tea, make this hard to convert to usable form.

TRIMETHYLGLYCINE -TMG/BETAINE

Decrease homocysteine damage.

UNDENATURED TYPE II COLLAGEN

Down regulates the autoimmune system.

VALERIAN

Decrease anxiety, WW II use.

VANADIUM

Mimics insulin, mushroom, black pepper.

B12

Protect mylein (nerve insulation).

VIT C

Collagen, decrease lipid; peroxidation, DNA damage.

Coenzyme to carnitine.

X: decrease super oxide dimutase.

VIT D

Regs 50 genes, more needed with age.

VIT E

Alpha tocopherol the only usable form in blood than maintains.

Recommended to be taken with C.

Blood thinner, not seen recommended above 400 IU/ day.

WHEY PROTEIN

Signal initiator.

Fast protein.

Isolate form is lower in saturated fat.

WILLOW BARK

Polyphenol.

Flavonoid.

Contraindicated to blood thinner, aspirin allergy.

WITHANIA SOMNIFERA

Anti inflamm, increase S.O.D. enzyme.

ZINC

Antioxidant.

In 300 enzymes.

Increase protein synth.

Regs Testosterone.

In sweat.

Immune, and tissue repair.