The basic approach I use to adding anything to a diet, is not using it before I know what it does. There are indications and contraindications, side effects, safe limits involved.
These supplements came from a text that is A-Z, The Athlete’s Guide To Sports Supplements, Mueller/Hingst. Plus a few others involved. It is not every last one of them. Studies indicate some work and then other works say they don’t work.
I am only saying these are the debated topics, on the ones that present as maybe more useful.
I do not receive any compensation for this. Only to improve the health of society, and assist athletes with their training.
These are assumed as part of a balanced diet.
X will indicate an injury mechanism.
SUPPLEMENTS AND INTENDED EFFECT:
Improve the phospholipid bilayer cell membrane. Decrease Alzheimer’s, peripheral neuropathy. Increase neurotransmitter ACh.
ALPHA LIPOIC ACID
Change in fat metabolism, protects cells.
Decrease neuromuscular fatigue. Precursor to Nitric Oxide, found in soy in chicken.
Increase ammonia to urea conversion. Increase glycogen synthesis. Found in asparagus.
AVOCADO SOY UNSAPONIFIABLES
Stims cartilage to grow. Decreases cytokines on chondrocytes & synovial. Inhibits TGF-B.
Antioxidant, anthocyanin. X: 3 mg nitrates per 100g. GI cancer in infants.
Improve cell membrane, precursor to Vit A. The body will not convert excess to A, so it is safeguarded as a fat soluble Vit, these build up to toxicity ( Vit’s- D,E,A,K, Co Q-10).
Mushroom for worked it is reported, not oat. Improved immune, wound healing.
Increased; TMG (decreases homocysteine (from caffeine) damage), circulation, fat metabolism. X: increased cholesterol.
Improved cognitive, (inflammation decrease), immune.
X: Increased antigen induced arthritis.
BCAA-BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACID
Aminos available as energy, oxidized in muscle. Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine. Prevents muscle breakdown.
Found in pineapple, and banana.
Effects of Bromelain on Cardiovascular and Circulation. Bromelain prevents or minimizes the severity of angina pectoris and transient ischemic attack (TIA). It is useful in the prevention and treatment of thrombophlebitis. It may also break down cholesterol plaques and exerts a potent fibrinolytic activity.
My reading in CEU discussed it reducing adhesions (scars).
This in addition:
Deeper, lower extremity burns were debrided with a new bromelain-based debriding agent, resulting in scar-free healing. … Bromelain has demonstrated an anti-angiogenic effect in various cancer cell lines and it has been shown to regulate a variety of pro-angiogenic (process by which new blood vessels form) factors.
Decreases; edema (swelling), Cox 2, bruising, bradykinin, osteoarthritis efx, sinusitis.
With Papin and fungal, regulates White Blood Cell.
Increase lipid oxidation. Decrease fat absorption.
Decrease nerve pain on capsaicin receptors, 49% at 3 weeks, muscle, joint pain.
Mike protein, rated as slow.
Decrease NF-KB, anti inflammatory.
Omega 3, antioxidant.
Decrease cholesterol, X: on allergy to shellfish.
Improved Homocysteine metabolism, decreased at 26 miles.
Increased insulin function.
In honey, anti estrogen, flavone- vasodilatory.
Anti; inflammatory, microbial. Polyphehol (decreases brown spots in skin), decreased Cox 2. 3-6 grams common use.
Decreased ammonia in body, found in apples.
Copper, potassium, calcium, polyphenol, increased cardiovascular protect. Decreased BP, cholesterol.
Anti bacterial, viral, fungal. X: watch the saturated fat bomb here.
Fat soluble vitamin. Decreased lipid peroxidation, CK( creatine kinase- marker for muscle damage, which willl shut down kidneys in excess).
Increase immune/IgA, decreased gut permeability, 3-4 x protein of normal milk.
CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (OMEGA 6)
Decreased fat uptake. Increased Beta-oxidation. Leads to insulin resistance?
Needed for ATP production. Athletes take creatine for ATP increase.
May increase T helper cells.
Increased muscle energy. Synthesis in liver, 95% in muscle.
Polyphenol, anti; inflammatory, oxidant. Decrease- COX 2, NF-kB.
Chondro(cartilage) protective. Best anti inflammatory? 1-3 grams common.
Increased; immunoglobins, antibody, macrophage. X: on allergy to ragweed.
Flavonoids, anthocyanin, increased; immune, flu recovery. XXX Toxic build up like Cyanide.
Flavonoid, polyphenol. Decrease glucose in diabetes?
Increased insulin sensitivity.
Soluble decreases cholesterol, insoluble is roughage.
5 HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN (5 HTP)
Increase Serotonin (decreased depression) .
Increased; fat metabolism, prostaglandin.
FOLIC ACID B9
Decrease Homocysteine, increased; vascular function, RBC.
Neurotransmitter, increased alpha brain waves, decreased cortisol.
GAMMA LINOLENIC- OMEGA 6
Anti; inflammatory, bacterial, viral. Reverses cholesterol plaques/heart disease.
With 50 antioxidants, alternative to NSAID.
$249 million per year/USA.
X: One reading reports this to cause hemorrhage in the brain with Vit E and Omega 3 use. Triple stack of blood thinners. Decrease radicals, increase insulin sensitivity.
Decrease BP, cortisol.
3 kinds; American (increased adrenal), Korean (panax) w/ flavonoid, Siberian( increased mental acuity).
Most abundant amino, increased protein synth, spares CP (creatine).
Antioxidant, synth in liver from L-Cysteine.
OPC’S -OLIGOMERIC PROANTHOCYANIDIN COMPLEXES
- Strong antioxidant- 20-50X potency. Crosses BBB blood brain barrier.
- Decrease; swelling, prostaglandin.
GRAPE SEED EXTRACT
SUPER ANTIOXIDANT, numbers vary but lists as 20X stronger than either Vit C or VIT E. The discrepancy is it is 50X stronger than one of those vitamins alone, while the other vitamin is outdone 20X by GSE .
Improved insulin efx, decreased triglyceride and body fat.
Increased ATP (energy) production.
An mTor pathway regulation-protein synth.
Metabolite of Leucine.
Increased serotonin. Decreased ATP-ase( enzyme).
X: uric acid, kidney stone.
Decreased glycemic, increased fat oxidation.
BCAA, mTor pathway.
KNOCKING OUT HOMOCYSTEINE
To lower LDL oxidation. Supplement Lutein is what you want? On the effects of homocysteine damaging blood vessels.
4 mechanisms damage vessels- proliferation of vascular smooth cells, endothelial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, oxidation of LDL. A decrease in Nitric Oxide as endothelial dysfunction.
What to do?
Lutein may decrease LDL oxidation, found in kale, spinach, yellow carrots.
Green Tea lowering LDL oxidation. With Ginseng, it also lowers homocysteine, it looks like to zero?
Nitric Oxide may dilate vessels but is also a radical.
A combination of vitamins C and E (ascorbic acid, tocopherol) or solitary supplementation with vitamin A (retinoic acid) prevented lipid–peroxidation.
X: What effect with blood thinners?
Peak O2 uptake, cardio protective.
Flavonoid, anthocyanin, improved immune.
Anti; bacterial, inflamm, viral, polyphenol. Some types improve T cells, fat use, ATP.
MCT’S- MEDIUM CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE
Fat not needing normal digestion, more available for energy.
From tryptophan amino, induces sleep.
X: Don’t use on blood thinners.
Increase cortisol efx.
Use in chronic joint pain.
Anti platelet, decreases clotting.
Changes drug metabolism at liver.
OMEGA 3 FATTY ACID
Protectins and Resolvins.
Improves cell membranes, wanting a 1:1 ratio with Omega 3: Omega 6.
Flax needs 3-5 higher dose with conversion less efficient than fish oil. X: too much blood thinner is a hazard.
Proline in collagen.
Buffer, increase in O2. Saw use in WW II.
Decrease Nitric Oxide.
Black pepper, decrease triglycerides, cholesterol.
Changes Gene PPARy, decrease adipogenesis.
Increase curcumin, resveratrol absorb.
Increase protein synth?
25% of bacteria in body.
Intestine is 70% of the immune fight.
(OPC’S-) Potent anti oxidant. Decrease enzyme in bronchitis.
Red grape, apple skin. Flavonoid, increase mitochondria( cell power house?)
Strong antioxidant, decrease; COX 2, DNA damage.
Changes gene for fat burning?
Deficient stunts growth.
+P runs right to ATP or DNA.
Anti inflamm, increase N.O. Vanilloids, decrease fat uptake.
From methionine, may increase proteoglycans which is part of cartilage. Collagen the other component of cart… Alternate to NSAID,
C,E, Beta Carotene, lycopene, flavonoids, GSH antioxidant.
Decrease; CK, R.O.S (radical). Increase antioxidant enzyme.
Minerals found in a dig site, and marketed.
CA, K, AL, P, MN, FE, SI, MG, BA, CU, CO, ZN
Decrease interleukin 1-B, cartilage degrade.
Isoflavones, slower than whey protein.
SUPER OXIDE DIMUTASE
Antioxidant, decrease homocysteine damage.
Long duration antioxidant in high dose.
Adrenal receptor efx.
Alternate to NSAID, increased prostaglandin.
Deficiency efx: nervous system, heart, brain.
Tannins in tea, make this hard to convert to usable form.
Decrease homocysteine damage.
UNDENATURED TYPE II COLLAGEN
Down regulates the autoimmune system.
Decrease anxiety, WW II use.
Mimics insulin, mushroom, black pepper.
Protect mylein (nerve insulation).
Collagen, decrease lipid; peroxidation, DNA damage.
Coenzyme to carnitine.
X: decrease super oxide dimutase.
Regs 50 genes, more needed with age.
Alpha tocopherol the only usable form in blood than maintains.
Recommended to be taken with C.
Blood thinner, not seen recommended above 400 IU/ day.
Isolate form is lower in saturated fat.
Contraindicated to blood thinner, aspirin allergy.
Anti inflamm, increase S.O.D. enzyme.
In 300 enzymes.
Increase protein synth.
Immune, and tissue repair.